Guide to essay writing

The first thing you should do is choose a theme for your monograph (sometimes teachers prefer to assign a topic chosen by them). The topic should be interesting and also of interest to the audience to which your writing is intended (your teacher and your colleagues, for example). Use the following questions to help you choose the theme: Am I interested in the subject to spend at least one study time? Because it is important? How is it related to this subject? Is it at my height? Where can I get information about him? Which sources are better than others? Will I have good supervision, with a specialist to guide me? Can I finish the job on time?

Then you must get a tutor for your monograph. It can be someone who knows about the subject, a more advanced partner, another teacher … the tutor can help you decide if the topic you have chosen is appropriate for a monograph and can guide you throughout the entire work.

Then it is necessary to read about it (do not forget to consult your tutor to find appropriate material to read). It is IMPOSSIBLE to write a good monograph if you do not read enough about it before: s

If you are looking for texts published on the Internet, select them according to the following criteria: official sites, universities, recognized institutions, international and national scientific journals, recent or updated information, sites that offer a clear explanation of the topic from the approach you want to give your work, etc. . Select about five sites and create a reading card for each of them: indicate the authorship data that can be retrieved from the page (for example, author, year of publication, responsible institution, etc.) and copy the link to be able to read it again later. Then try to write in a few lines the way in which the subject is addressed, what it says, etc.

If you are looking for texts in a library, it is convenient that you choose books or scientific journals. For these texts you must also indicate the authorship data. If it is a whole chapter or the whole book, it will probably be better to write a very brief comment; On the other hand, if it is a short text, you can write a summary or synthesis. The idea is to include relevant information for what will later be the monograph.

Whatever text you decide to write, you should always include the author’s data and you should not copy and paste but quote in quotes (and add the page number where you copied it) or paraphrase (say it with your own words). The texts that you are reading should be current, no more than 5 or 10 years after its publication …

Once you’ve read a lot about the subject … you can start with the monograph itself. For this it is extremely useful to make a conceptual map that illustrates the topic you have chosen. The map will be the guide for the drafting of the first draft (and for the subsequent correction). The concepts chosen on the map will probably be the subtitles of your monograph.

Then you will begin to associate the readings made so far with each part of the conceptual map … you will discard some (inevitably!) … you will need to look for others …. and select what you think you should quote verbatim because it is an important element and see what material can be summarized or paraphrased.

You will start writing the draft of the body or development taking special care when writing, when citing, when writing, when organizing the information in the text, when using connectors, etc. In the draft of the body of the monograph you should go explaining the chosen topic. Generally it is not preceded by the title “Development” but rather it is the development itself and is organized in parts, titles or subtitles.

The final text must consist of a logically linked sequence of argumentation, aimed at clarifying the problem. It is possible to use diagrams or schemes to clarify the text. It is important to be clear when exposing, maintaining a style of its own. When you write for the first time, you can imitate a favorite author until you acquire a style of your own: to be a good writer you need to be a good reader. It is not good to adopt a pedantic, satirical or hypercritical style.

For the bibliographic data it is necessary to follow some system of norms (for example the APA norms). Be careful when quoting: both for direct speech (in quotes) and for reformulated speech (with your own words) use introductory verbs and phrases to introduce the voice of another. For example: consider that, he explains that, according to, in words of (for direct discourse), he explains that, according to, according to, he maintains that, he affirms that, etc.

As you are writing the draft, it is convenient to build the bibliography section or references. Although the terms bibliography, references and cited literature are often used as synonyms, the former should be used when a complete compilation of the literature on the subject is presented, the second when a selection of articles is presented and the third when all the articles cited in the text they appear in the list of references and vice versa.

Once you have the draft of the subject, you should review it from several angles:

  • The construction of the text (I leave you some tricks to review);
  • The writing (see Tips to correct your writing and When the spell checker does not help …);
  • The formal presentation (see Suggestions for submitting written works)

Now you must write the introduction. Its function is to present the topic that will be addressed, indicate what is interesting or interesting to be studied, present the authors on which it was based to obtain the information and guide the reader. In general, it serves to situate the reader in front of the characteristics, objectives and circumstances in which you have developed your work. You can mention the topic (do not develop it!), Mention your objectives when selecting the topic, tell how the rest of the work is organized. Do not confuse the introduction of the monograph with the introduction of the subject (the latter is already the beginning of the body of work and does not bear the title “introduction”).

Finally, the time has come to write the conclusion, which offers a closing, synthesizes what has been said up there and highlights the most important aspects of your work. It is not a matter of repeating what it says in the body of the work but of exposing and justifying the main conclusions, reflections or results to which you have arrived on what has been investigated. You can break new issues or formulate new problems and record the pending problems, which could be taken up in other works.

Now you can include other parts:

  • Cover: It is a whole page at the beginning of the document with the data of the institution, subject, teacher, name of the work, student (s), place and date. The style of the cover is usually related to the content of the header and the footer.
  • Index: In academic texts, the index usually comes immediately after the cover because it is a writing that will be evaluated and offers the reader a global idea of the content of the work.
  • Appendix: This optional section includes secondary information or important material that is very extensive. The appendix is placed after the bibliography or references. Examples of information that can be placed in the appendix: images, tables, laws, lists, data, statistics, interviews, etc.

Before delivering the text (and before printing it!) You should read the complete monograph at least once and ask your tutor to read it too (it can be read by a colleague, a relative, all help is useful when reviewing it is …)

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