The metatext or metadiscourse

What is the metatext?

The academic-scientific discourse is characterized by defining its textual objectives and its textual organization from the beginning (since the introduction) and also refer, from different segments, to various sectors of the text, by means of indications such as cf. (confront) or v. (see), supra (above) or infra (below), for example. Moreover, in the conclusion usually a metatextual signaling of different previous segments is also made. In these texts, different procedures are often used to guide the recognition of the parties and facilitate understanding:

  • connectors that organize information: first, on the other hand, etc .;
  • connectors that indicate a change of orientation or point of view: instead, on the contrary, etc .;
  • phrases that explain the textual organization: as we have said, until here, then, etc .;
  • Paratextual elements: the layout of the text, titles, subtitles, graphics, images, pictures, etc .;
  • graphic or typographical marks that allow to visualize the hierarchy of the information: numbers, bold, etc.

Among the linguistic marks that organize the text, we find two groups:

Markers that structure the text: affect a relatively large fragment (such as a paragraph or a group of sentences). Establish order and significant relationship. They can be divided according to the function they fulfill:

  • Introduce the subject of the text: the main objective of … is; the purpose of this work …; we propose to expose; this text is about; etc.
  • Start a new topic: with respect to; as to; in relation to; regarding; about; etc.
  • Mark order: first; Secondly; Finally; first of all; then; after; to start; to end; to end; then; etc.
  • Distinguish: on the one hand, on the other; on the one hand, on the other (part); instead; However; However; Conversely; but nevertheless; etc.
  • Continue on the same topic: in addition; then; after; Likewise; then; as well; Y; in addition; etc.
  • Emphasize: it’s worth noting; It should be noted; must take into account; the most important; the central idea is; indeed; that is to say; that is; this is; in other words; in other words; As said before); etc.
  • Detail: for example; equivalent to; in particular; in the case of; namely; A) Yes; for example; etc.
  • Summarize: in summary; in a nutshell; on the whole; to sum up; etc.
  • Finish: in conclusion; In conclusion; to end; by last; etc.
  • Indicate time: before; previously; at the same time; simultaneously; during; so; then; after; then; until; finally; as soon as; when; etc.

Bookmarks that structure ideas: affect shorter pieces (such as sentences or phrases). They connect ideas with each other inside the prayer. They can be divided according to the relationship they establish between the ideas:

  • Cause: because; Since; due; because of; as; since; Given the; considering that; Taking into account that.
  • Consequence: consequently; so that; in this way; For this; because; whereby; so that; therefore; A) Yes; so; Y.
  • Condition: on condition of; as long as; in case of; as long; and in return.
  • Purpose: for; for what; for the purpose of; with the purpose of; with the purpose of.
  • Opposition: but; but nevertheless; However; instead; Conversely; contrary; Unlike.
  • Objection (grant): although; while; in spite of; even (+ gerund); even so; by more than; although.

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